Since the beginning of the Syrian conflict in 2011, millions of Syrians have been forced to migrate to neighboring countries. The majority of them have settled in Turkey. Despite this, few studies have focused on the bilateral relations between the Syrian guests and Turkish hosts in the land. This quantitative study, conducted in two cities in the eastern Mediterranean Mersin and Adana , adds to the literature of an emerging and dynamic field of migration and refugee studies in Turkey and is our attempt to help close gaps in research. Although no direct discrimination or harsh hostilities between the two groups have been identified, Syrians seem to feel culturally close to their hosts. Turks, on the other hand, lack trust in Syrians and display views about them that are at times based on some negative stereotypes. We also found that for Turks, the Syrian problem is considered to be a temporary issue. While the temporal quality of discussions about the classic anthropological other often permeates academic discussions about immigrants and refugees, the lack of structured policies in Turkey, as well as the use of narratives and discourses to influence public opinion in its stead, has fed popular narratives about Syrians as passive recipients of charity and a transitory population. This occurs despite the probability that Syrians may in fact soon become a recognized and sizeable Arab-speaking minority in Turkey.
Syrians , Turkey , Refugees , Guests , Hosts , Temporariness
- Alexander, M. (2003). Local policies toward migrants as an expression of host-stranger relations: A proposed typology. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 29(3), 411–430.
- Al Jazeera. (2016, July 4). Erdoğan: Syrian refugees could become Turkish citizens. Retrieved from http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2016/07/Erdoğan-syrian-refugees-turkish- citizens-160703133739430.html
- Al Rifai, D., & Haddad, M. (2015, March 15). What’s left of Syria? Al-Jazeera News [Online]. Retrieved from http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/interactive/2015/03/left-syria- 150317133753354.html
- Altengi, M., Al-Bahr, G., Najjar, A., Babelli, M. H., & Asheer, A. (2015). Syrian-Turkish harmonization – Study on the Syrian-Turkish harmonization in Gaziantep. Ankara, Turkey: SABR & MDN.
- Amnesty International. (2015). Syria: Left out in the cold: Syrian refugees abandoned by the international community [Online]: Amnesty International. Retrieved from https://www.amnesty. org/en/documents/MDE24/047/2014/en/
- Amnesty International. (2016). Syrian refugee crisis in numbers [Online]. Retrieved from https:// www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2015/09/syrias-refugee-crisis-in-numbers/
- Bauman, Z. (1995). Making and unmaking of strangers. Thesis Eleven, 43(1), 1–16.
- Betts, A., Bloom, L., Kaplan, J., & Omata, N. (2014, January). Refugee economics: Rethinking popular assumptions (Humanitarian Inovation Project). Oxford, UK : Oxford University.
- Betts, A., & Loescher, G. (2015). Introduction: Continuity and change in global refugee policy. Refugee Survey Quarterly, 33(1), 1–7.
- Boucher, A., & Gest, J. (2015). Migration studies at a crossroads: A critique of immigration regime typologies. Migration Studies, 3(2), 182–198.
- Central Intelligence Agency. (2015). The World fact book. [Online]. Retrieved from https://www. cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sy.html
- Chatty, D. (in press). The Syrian humanitarian disaster: Understanding perceptions, aspirations and behaviour in Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey. In E. Chemin, Ö. Cetrez, U. Korkut, & D. Chatty (Eds.), Methodologies of forced migration: Past and present among refugees in the eastern Mediterranean (Unpublished manuscript).
- Cohen, R. J., & Swerdlik, M. E. (2010). Psychological testing and assessment: An introduction to tests and measurement (7th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw Hill Higher Education.
- Dinçer, O. B., Federici, V., Ferris, E., Karaca, S., Kirişci, K., & Çarmıklı, E. Ö. (2013). Turkey and Syrian refugees: The limits of hospitality. International Strategic Research Organization (USAK), Ankara, Turkey.
- Elias, N., & Scotson, J. (1965). The established and the outsiders: A sociological inquiry into community problems. London, UK: Sage.
- Erdoğan, M. M. (2014). Perceptions of Syrians in Turkey. Insight Turkey, 16(4), 65. Retrieved from https://files.acrobat.com/a/preview/bbbf7e11-77fc-43c6-bfc1-0165b2fd51e2
- German Marshal Fund. (2014). Transatlantic trends: Mobility, migration and integration. Retrieved from http://trends.gmfus.org/files/2014/09/Trends_Immigration_2014_web.pdf
- German Marshall Fund. (2015). Turkish perception survey. Retreived from http://www.gmfus.org/ sites/default/files/TurkeySurvey_2015_web1.pdf
- Gümüş, B., & Eroğlu, D. (2015). Partial integration of Syrian escapees under the rule of Turkey’s Justice and Development Party (AKP). Contemporary Arab Affairs, 8(4), 469–487.
- Harlak, H. (2000). Önyargılar: Psikososyal bir inceleme [Prejudices: A psychosocial research]. İstanbul, Turkey: Sistem Yayıncılık.
- Korkut, U. (in press). Applying the theory of discursive analysis of the governance of forced migration. In E. Chemin, Ö. Cetrez, U. Korkut, & D. Chatty (Eds.), Methodologies of forced migration and resilience: Past and present in the Mediterranean (Unpublished manuscript). Swedish Research Institute of Istanbul, Turkey.
- Orhan, O., & Gündoğar, S. (2015, January). Effects of the Syrian refugees on Turkey (ORSAM Report No: 195). Retrieved from http://www.orsam.org.tr/en/enUploads/Article/Files/201518_ rapor195ing.pdf
- Özden, S. (2013). Syrian refugees in Turkey (MPC Research Report 2013/05). Retrieved from http://cadmus.eui.eu/bitstream/handle/1814/29455/MPC-RR-2013%2005.pdf?sequence=1
- Park, R., & Burgess, E. (1921). Introduction to the science of sociology. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
- Penninx, R. (2004, January). Integration of migrants: Economic, social, cultural and political dimensions. Paper presented at the UNECE-conference, Geneve, Switzerland. Retrieved from http://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/pau/_docs/pau/2004/PAU_2004_EPF_BgDocPenninx.pdf
- Simmel, G. (1950). The stranger. In K. H. Wolff (Ed.), The sociology of Georg Simmel (pp. 402– 408). New York, NY: Free Press. (Original work published 1908)
- Syrian Centre for Policy Research. (2016, February 11). Confronting fragmentation [Online]. Retrieved from http://scpr-syria.org/publications/policy-reports/confronting-fragmentation/
- Tolay, J. (2013). Deconstructing Turkish public attitudes towards refugees: Empowering rights over politicization and self-gratification. USAK Yearbook of Politics and International Relations, 6, 1–29.
- Tolay, J. (2015). Discovering immigration into Turkey: The emergence of a dynamic field. International Migration, 53(6), 57–73.
- United Nations. (2013). UN demographic year book: Economic and social affairs [Online]. Retrieved from http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/dyb/dybsets/2013.pdf
- United Nations High Commisioner for Refugees. (2015, May 17). Syrian regional refugee response: Inter-agency information sharing portal. [Online]. Retrieved from http://data.unhcr. org/syrianrefugees/asylum.php
- Wimmer, A., & Schiller, N. G. (2002). Methodological nationalism and the study of migration. European Journal of Sociology, 43(2), 217–240.
- Yıldırım, S., & Tekdemir Yurtdaş, G. (2016). Social construction of Syrian refugees in daily speech in Turkey: Interpretative repertoires and social media. Middle East Journal of Refugee Studies, 1(1), 103–122.