Pakistan, the host of millions of Afghan refugees since the Soviet invasion, now seeks their speedy repatriation. The process has already started and it is one of the largest repatriation programs in the UNHCR’s history. However, around 3 million Afghans still reside in Pakistan. This paper provides an overview of the underlying problems and multifaceted stumbling blocks being faced in the process and shed light on the future scenario and this research also examines what policy readjustments are required on part of Pakistan to make repatriation a success while keeping in views that successful repatriation not only means the return of refugees but ensuring that they enter the mainstream of life-economically, politically, socially in their home country. For obtaining the Qualitative information a survey has been conducted of every refuges camp in District Dir Lower, KPK, and Pakistan. The data has been collected from 250 respondents through a structured Questionnaire while using simple random sample technique and further, the data has been proceeding through SPSS version 20, further classified, thoroughly analyzed and has been presented in the form of tables, frequency, percentages, and discussion over tables with the help of secondary information and a qualitative discussion has been made over the field data. The study found several issues that were faced by Afghan refugees living in different camps and villages of District Dir, KPK, Pakistan, and their fear regarding repatriation. The common issues they faced in Pakistan were income/livelihood related, lack of proper shelter, and poor water supply facilities. The current research has revealed that if the government of Pakistan and the UNHCR want voluntary repatriation to succeed the conditions relating to security needed improvement, the availability of jobs in the receiving areas needed to expand, and adequate facilities needed to be available in the education and the health fields.
afghan refugees, migration, Pakistan
- Brown, M. & Williams, A. (2003). Afghan returnees: Home is where the “hard” is. From http://www.interaction.org/newswire/detail.php
- Connor. K. M. (2014). Factors in the Residential Choices of Self-Settled Afghans Refugees in Peshawar, Pakistan. op. cit, 927–9.
- Connor. K. M, (2015). Rationales for the Movement of Afghan Refugees to Peshawar. Peshawar, Pakistan.
- Connor. M, (2016). An Analysis of Residential Choice among Self-Settled Afghan Refugees in Peshawar, Pakistan.
- Factors in the Residential Choices of Self-Settled Afghan Refugees in Peshawar, Pakistan, International Migration Review, Vol. 23, 1989, 904–32.
- Gaston. E and Lillian. D, (2015). Addressing Land Conflict in Afghanistan, Special Report no. 372 (Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace).
- Human Rights Watch. (2002). Afghanistan unsafe for refugee returns: U.N. refugee agency sending “misleading” message. Retrieved March 1, 2005, from http://www.hrw.org/ press/2002/07/afghan0723
- Ijaz ,H, (2005). Afghan Refugees- the Way Forward http://www.dailytimes.com. Integrated Regional Information Networks, (2005). Lack of infrastructure and jobs impedes the return of Afghans. Retrieved March 3, 2005, from http://www.irinnews.org/print.asp
- Kunz. E. F (2016). Exile and Resettlement: Refugee Theory, International Migration Review, Vol. 15, 1981, 42–51.
- Kunz. E. F. (2014). The Refugee in Flight: Kinetic Models and Forms of Displacement. International Migration Review, Vol. 7, 1973, 130.
- Lincoln & Omaha, (2005). Rationales for the Movement of Afghan Refugees to Peshawar. in G. M. Farr and J. G. Merriam (eds), Afghan Resistance.
- Liz W, (2003). Seeking Peace on the Pasture. Afghan Research and Evaluation Unit, Kabul.
- Bump. M. N, (2006). Remittances in Conflict and Crises: How Remittances Sustain Livelihoods in War, Crises, and Transitions to Peace. Washington, International Peace Academy.
- Rao. S and Turkstra. J, (2014). Enhancing Security of Land Tenure for IDPs, Forced Migration Review 46, (2014): 15–18.
- The Politics of Survival, Boulder, and London, Westview Press, 1987, 151–90. Turton. D and Marsden. P, (2002). Taking Refugees for a Ride? The Politics of Refugee Return to Afghanistan, Kabul, Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit, 2002.
- UNHCR, Returnee Monitoring Report Afghanistan Repatriation Jan-March 2002, July 22, 2003 (Available: www.relief.int).
- UNHCR, Statistical Summary Overview: Census of Afghans in Pakistan, March 2005. United Nations Refugee Agency (UNHCR), Afghanistan Refugee and Returnee Overview (Geneva: UNHCR, 2015).